Brant (Brent) Goose
The brant or brent goose (Branta bernicla) is a species of goose of the genus Branta. The black brant is an American subspecies. The specific descriptor bernicla is from the same source as "barnacle" in barnacle goose, which is similar in appearance. The Brent System, a major oilfield, was named after the species.
The species is divided three subspecies:
Dark-bellied brant goose B. b. bernicla (Linnaeus, 1758)
Pale-bellied brant goose B. b. hrota (Müller, 1776) (sometimes also known as light-bellied brant goose in Europe, and Atlantic brant in North America)
Black brant B. b. nigricans (Lawrence, 1846) (sometimes also known as the Pacific brant in North America) 
A fourth form (known variously as gray brant, intermediate brant or grey-bellied brant goose) has been proposed, although no formal subspecies description has been made as yet, for a population of birds breeding in central Arctic Canada (mainly Melville Island), and wintering on Puget Sound on the American west coast around the U.S./Canada border. These birds are intermediate in appearance between black brant and pale-bellied brant, having brown upperparts and grey underparts which give less of a contrast with the white flank patch. Given that this population exhibits mixed characters, it has also been proposed that, rather than being a separate subspecies, it is actually a result of interbreeding between these two forms.
The cackling goose (Branta hutchinsii) is a North American bird of the genus Branta of black geese, which contains species with largely black plumage, distinguishing them from the grey Anserspecies.
The Canada goose (Branta canadensis) is a large wild goose species with a black head and neck, white patches on the face, and a brown body.
Native to arctic and temperate regions of North America, its migration occasionally reaches northern Europe. It has been introduced to the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Argentina, Chile, and the Falkland Islands. Like most geese, the Canada goose is primarily herbivorous and normally migratory; it tends to be found on or close to fresh water.
Extremely successful at living in human-altered areas, Canada geese have proven able to establish breeding colonies in urban and cultivated areas, which provide food and few natural predators, and are well known as a common park species.
Their success has led to them often being considered a pest species because of their depredation of crops and issues with their noise, droppings, aggressive territorial behavior, and habit of begging for food, especially in their introduced range. Canada geese are also among the most commonly hunted waterfowl in North America. 
The black head and neck with a white "chinstrap" distinguish the Canada goose from all other goose species, with the exception of the cackling goose andbarnacle goose (the latter, however, has a black breast and gray rather than brownish body plumage).
The snow goose (Chen caerulescens), also known as the blue goose.
This goose breeds north of the timberline in Greenland, Canada,
Alaska, and the northeastern tip of Siberia, and spends winters in warm parts of North America from southwestern British Columbia through parts of the United States to Mexico. They fly as far south as Texas and Mexico during winter, and return to nest on the Arctic tundra each spring. 
The breeding population of the lesser snow goose exceeds 5 million birds, an increase of more than 300% since the mid-1970s. The population is increasing at a rate of more than 5% per year. Non-breeding geese (juveniles or adults that fail to nest successfully) are not included in this estimate, so the total number of geese is even higher. Lesser snow goose population indices are the highest they have been since population records have been kept, and evidence suggests that large breeding populations are spreading to previously untouched sections of the Hudson Bay coastline. 
Brant Goose - USFWS - Flickr
Cackling Goose - Karren Perry - Flickr
Canada Goose - Tim Dutton - Flickr
Ross's Goose - By DickDaniels (http://carolinabirds.org/) (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons
Snow Goose - Darren Simmons - Flicker
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