Find the best places to hunt Ptarmigan in Canada. Discover their Physical Description, Range, Habitat, Food Source, Breeding Habits, and Status. 

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0) Willow Ptarmigan, Lagopus lagopus LC

Willow Ptarmigan Range Map of Canada

Willow Ptarmigan Range Map of Canada 

Original map of canada: By Nzeemin [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

Modified By: Canada-Hunts.ca

The Willow Ptarmigan is one of three native species of ptarmigans that reside in Canada. As a year-round native resident it ranges east to west right across the expanse of northern Canada. Its northerly range is as high as Victoria and Baffin Islands which is lower than the range of the Rock Ptarmigan. The Rock Ptarmigan ranges all the way to the top of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. The willow ptarmigan’s southward range gives it representation in every province and territory except Saskatchewan.

This bird is mostly found in areas at or above the treeline along with tundra marshes. It requires vegetation to be present especially shrubs species like the dwarf birch and willow.

Description of Willow Ptarmigan:

Willow Ptarmigan

Willow Ptarmigan

Willow Ptarmigan - D.Sikes - Flickr

This is a medium sized bird that lives on the ground and is very similar to the rock ptarmigan. The difference lies not only its range but also in the fact that the Rock Ptarmigan is smaller, has a browner summer plumage, and a thinner bill. Also, the male Rock Ptarmigan has a black stripe between its eyes and bill where the Willow does not.

Males and females of the species are about the same size. This specimen has a round protruding chest, short bill, short rounded tail, and a neck that when extended is almost goose like. Its feet and legs are short and covered with feathers in order to help conserve heat and aid them in walking on the snow.

During the summer, in the area of its neck and chest, the male’s colouring is a mottled brown with a reddish ting. These areas will change to snow white in the winter. The male has red coloured wattles over its eyes that are only really noticeable in the breeding season where as the female does not have wattles..

Year round, both sexes of this species have white wings, and a black tail that is really noticeable in flight. The underbelly of the male is white while females have brown coloured feathers mixed in with the white.

This bird has an overall length that ranges from 14 to 17 inches (35 to 44 cm.) long, a wingspan of 24 to 26 inches (60 to 65 cm.) across, a male’s tail is about 4.6 ins. (11.8 cm) long, a hen’s tail is about 4.57 inches (11.6) long and they have a body mass of 0.95 to 1.79 lbs. (0.43 to 0.81 kg.).

The life expectancy of a wild ptarmigan is generally about that of 4 years but specimens of up to 9 years of age have been recorded.

Diet and Foraging Strategy of the Willow Ptarmigan:

The Ptarmigan is considered to be an herbivore and its vegetative diet of berries, catkins, flowers, leaves, twigs, and seeds will vary according to season, the depth of the snow, the subspecies, and the size of their bill.

Snow Depth.

You can appreciate that snow depths will vary throughout this bird’s range. As snow increases in depth some plant species may get buried under the snow and the ptarmigan are forced to forage on those plant species that are taller. 

Size of Bill

The size of Rock Ptarmigan bills is small so they will likely forage on smaller buds and catkins like that of the dwarf birch. However, Willow Ptarmigans have larger bills and they are capable of handling the larger buds of aspen. The size of the White-tailed Ptarmigans is between the two.

Subspecies

Because the breeding habitats of the Willow, Rock and White-tailed Ptarmigan are different. The area in which they forage for food for the period of May to September is different. Thus, they are not in competition for the same food resources.

Willow Ptarmigan

In the winter they eat mostly buds and twigs.

A study showed that Augusts’ diet was comprised mainly of leaves, then berries, and seeds. Then by September it abruptly stopped eating leaves and changed to that of willow buds and berries.

 

Plant Species Plant Part September October November March April May June to Aug.
Alaska Willow Buds and Twigs 1.75%   47.9% 57.88% 76.52% 40.37% 3.63%
gray willow Buds and Twigs 17.75% 33.15% 11.67% 0.02% 0.18% 2.82%  
diamondleaf willow Buds and Twigs 1.06% 24.33% 29.84% 1.53% 2.06% 4.92% 0.02%
Richardson's willow Buds and Twigs   15.06%   6.53% 0.9% 12.16%  
littletree willow Buds and Twigs 8.96% 4.2% 2.86% 31.75% 16.17% 33.84%  
Arctic Willow Leaves             42.98%
Arctic Willow Catkins             0.8%
Dwarf Birch Buds and Twigs 7.51% 4.31% 1.2% 2.94% 2.94% 0.7% 0.03%
Dwarf Birch Catkins 9.08% 4.73% 0.14%

0.02%

0.12% 0.15% 4.8%
entireleaf mountain-avens Leaves 1.56% 3.5% 6.27% 0.44% 0.44% 0.04%  
dwarf scouring rush Stems 2.64% 0.21%         15.71%
cowberry Leaves       0.52% 0.52% 1.43% 5.01%
western blueberry Berries 41.8% 8.1%         4.85%
western blueberry Buds and Twigs 7.15% 1.64%         0.23%
common bearberry Berries             8.42%
Other ------ .75% 0.76% 0.63% 0.25% 0.25% 0.67% 13.22%
Data from West and Meng, Nutrition of Willow Ptarmigan, Oct 1966


Breeding and Reproduction of the Willow Ptarmigan:

The mating bond between male and female ptarmigan is mostly a monogamous one. We all know the role of the female is to lay the eggs and raise the brood. But, the role of the male Ptarmigan in the mating process is not only to breed but unlike other grouse he will act as a guard for the nest while the female feeds. Note that there is a slight variance here between Willow, Rock, and White-tailed ptarmigan in that The Willow Ptarmigan will also accompany and defend a brood after hatching while the other two species do not. Willow Ptarmigan hens are fiercely protective of their mates during the breeding season. It is not clearly known if this is a defensive mechanism to prevent him from wandering off to breed another female. Or is it something else?

The male member of the species sets out a breeding territory in April and May. Breeding territories are uniform in size with the exception of polygynous males, they will have a larger territory. Males are intolerant of other males of the same species and will defend it against all other males. Note, Willow ptarmigans will tolerate Rock and or White-tailed ptarmigans within the same territory.

A female of the species will join him about 2 weeks later and the pair may share this area for as high as 33 days before the actual act of mating occurs.

The willow ptarmigan has several different displays that it uses during courtship rituals.

Tail-Fanning

The male erects its tail (sometimes fanning it), lowers his wings down onto the ground and then approaches the potential female mate.

Waltzing

The male puts his wings around the female and slowly circles her with short, high steps.

Rapid-Stamping

The male rushes the female with a fanned tail, arched neck, head lowered and his beak open .

Bowing

The male lowers his body to the ground then raises and lowers his head.

Head-Wagging

This may be done by males and females alike. Here one member of the pair will crouch. Then the crouch bird wags its head from side to side.

The time frame generally coincides with the melting of the snow. It is now late May to early June and the hen is ready to lay her eggs in a nest that is a simple shallow depression on the ground. Her nest that is lined with grass, lichen, leaves, and / or feather will be located in a well-hidden spot typically at the edge of a clearing or even in a patch of grass.

Here, the hen lays 5 to 14 (norm. is 7) tan coloured eggs with dark brown spots at a rate of about 1 per day. Once the hen’s clutch is laid, she will take 21 to 22 days to incubate and hatch them. The young chicks normally hatch with in hours of each other. Until all eggs have hatched, the hen will brood the new born chicks. The hen will attempt to re-nest if her first and sometimes subsequent nests are predated or destroyed.

Like other members of the grouse family they are born in an advanced state of development and are able to leave the nest and feed themselves as soon as they are dry. Their first order of business is to devour the yolk sack of the egg from which they were born.

The mated pair of willow ptarmigan will both help feed and protect the young chicks from predators. The chicks are able to make short flights in 12 to 13 days but mortality in their first 11 months still high as it is estimated to be as high as 65%. They will be fully independent of their parents at 2 months of age.

Some studies have concluded that insects are the mainstay of a chick’s diet at first. However, another study cites that the primary food of chicks is moss sporophyte capsules and that by day 13 to 16. Their diet consisted of Distichium Capsules, willow leaves, berries, and finally a small number of insects.

When September arrives families of ptarmigan join together to form flocks. These flocks may migrate as far as 100 miles (160 km.) to winter feeding grounds. This migration tends to see females migrating into forested areas south of the tree line while males usually stay on the tundra or fringe areas of the treeline. For this reason, this bird is considered to non-migratory or may be a locally migrating bird that travels less than 124.2 miles (200 km.).

This species is sexually mature at 1 year of age.

Status of Willow Ptarmigan:

The Willow Ptarmigan was assessed by BirdLife International in 2012 to be a species of Least Concern. Justification for this assessment on the Red List was because it has a very large range and even though the population does show some sign of decline it is not great enough to have to take action.

The predation of chicks and nests is more likely to come from a bird species rather than a land-based mammal.

Birds that will prey on them includes the hooded crow, bald eagle, golden eagle, peregrine falcon, gull, gyrfalcon, northern harrier, northern goshawk, marsh hawk, rough-legged hawk, magpie, raven, short-eared owl, and snowy owl.

Mammals that prey on the Willow Ptarmigan include the polar bear, artic fox, red fox, lynx, pine marten, mink, least weasel, short-tailed weasel, wolf, and wolverine.

With varying climate conditions, it is normal for this species to under cycles of population ups and downs every 9 or 10 years. This variation in climate has a great impact on brood success rates, the availability of foraging material and finally population size.

The annual mortality rate of this bird is about 60% to 70%. 

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0) Rock ptarmigan, Lagopus muta LC

Rock Ptarmigan Range Map of Canada

Rock Ptarmigan Range Map of Canada 

Original map of canada: By Nzeemin [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

Modified By: Canada-Hunts.ca

The Rock Ptarmigan is one of three native species of ptarmigans that reside in Canada. As a year-round native resident its range east to west is right across the expanse of northern Canada. Its northerly range is all the way to the top of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago Its range is higher up than the Willow Ptarmigan. The Rock ptarmigan’s southward range is only ½ down each of the northern territories.

This bird is mostly found in the higher latitudes. Here on the open tundra, their habitat is the barren and rocky slopes of the Arctic where it is generally dry with low scattered plant life.

Winter

At this time of year, they usually are found in brushy slopes near the timberline. Here they can usually find vegetation sticking out of the snow for foraging on.

Spring and Summer

For some reason they like rocky areas that contain some sort of brush. The possible strategy is that this is an area that would not be frequented as much by some of their main predators like the fox and owl.

Chicks

Swales and ridges that don’t have a lot of dense brush is the preferred habitat that female Rock Ptarmigan tend to lead their chicks to.

Description of Rock Ptarmigan:

Rock Ptarmigan

Rock Ptarmigan

Rock Ptarmigan - By Jan Frode Haugseth (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons

This is a small bird that lives on the ground and is very similar to the Willow ptarmigan. The difference lies not only its range but also in the fact that the Willow Ptarmigan is about 10% larger in size. The Rock Ptarmigan also has a browner summer plumage, and a thinner bill. Also, the male Rock Ptarmigan has a black stripe between its eyes and bill where the Willow does not.

This bird has an overall length that ranges from 13 to 15 inches (33 to 38 cm.) long, a wingspan of 21 to 24 inches (54 to 60 cm.) across, a tail that is about 3.1 ins. (8 cm) long, and they have a body mass of 0.94 lbs. (0.425 kg.).

Both sexes on the surface are much the same especially in the winter when they are both pure white except for their black tail. Its feet and legs are short and covered with feathers in order to help conserve heat and aid them in walking on the snow.

Males change into their summer plumage later than females do so that they can retain their winter plumage for the mating season. This late change of plumage does however make the male more susceptible to aviator predation.

In summer plumage, both sexes have brown and black barred colouring. None of which can be used for identification purposes.

The male has a red wattle over its eye and is a little larger than the female.

In the fall the males change again and their upper parts become a greyish colour along with white wings and under parts.

Not much is known about the life expectancy of the rock ptarmigan and there is no apparent data available.

Diet and Foraging Strategy of the Rock Ptarmigan:

Winter

In the winter they forage on buds and catkins of the Dwarf Birch. This is mainly because the birch is the only plant species that may sticking out of the snow. Also, birch buds are smaller and easier for the Rock Ptarmigan to handle. Rock Ptarmigan are good at digging in shallow snow for vegetation that lies underneath. They also recognize and take advantage of feeding craters that are made by caribou, muskoxen, and arctic hares. 

Spring

The following chart shows they consume a lot of buds, berries and leaves.

Early Summer

Their early summer diet switches heavily onto leaves followed by buds and berries.

Late Summer

Berries come to the top of the list here and there is a drastic drop in the amount of leaves from the early summer. Note that buds, bulbils, and catkins have also dropped in quantity but insects at this time have jumped.

Autumn

They start to transition back to their winter diet by consuming, buds, bulbils, catkins and berries.

Chicks

Chicks has its own grouping because their diet seems to be unique. Note that buds, bulbils, catkins make up 50% of their diet. Then followed by berries, leaves, seeds, snails and insects. This data does however conflict with a lot of other reports that state insects to be the mainstay of the chicks diet. Adults are almost exlusive vegetarians, but young chicks feed heavily on insects, spiders, and snails.(Johnsgard, 1973; Kaufman, 1996; Weeden, 1995)

 

Plant Part Winter Spring Early Summer Early Summer (chicks) Late Summer Autumn
Berries 3% 37% 11% 16% 38% 25%
Buds, bulbils, catkins 96% 43% 33% 50% 14% 63%
flowers   1% 3%      
Insects       4% 13%  
Leaves   13% 50% 14% 20% 4%
Moss       2%    
Seeds       9% 8% 4%
Snails       4% 3%  
Data compiled by Canada-Hunts.ca from data by: Ptarmigan Foods in Alaska - https://sora.unm.edu/

 

Food Item Plant Part Winter Spring Early Summer Early Summer (chicks) Late Summer Autumn
Birch catkins, buds 86% 31% 6%   13% 51%
bog blueberry Berries 2% 11% 1% 4% 9% 13%
crowberry Berries   16% 2% 6% 25% 10%
partridgeberry Berries 1% 10% 8% 6% 3% 2%
mountain avens Leaves   11% 13% 2% 6% 3%
Arctic Willow Buds, twigs 6% 12% 13%     10%
Seges seeds       9% 4% 4%
alpine bistort bulbils     14% 47% 1% 2%
Arctic Willow leaves 0%   15% 11% 1% 1%
Green Alder catkins, buds 4%          
Green Alder leaves     3%      
Anemone Leaves     2%   1%  
alpine bearberry Berries         1%  
Birch Leaves     5%      
mountain avens flowers     3%      
horsetail tips   3%        
Arctic lupine Leaves   1%        
moss Fruiting bodies       2%     
Locoweed leaves     9%   9%  
Bistort seeds         4%  
saxifrages capsules       3%    
Unidentified leaves Leaves   1% 3% 1% 3%  
Unidentified flowers flowers   1%        
Unidentified larvae larvae       4% 13%  
Snails         4% 3%  
Source : Ptarmigan Foods in Alaska - https://sora.unm.edu/

 

 

 Breeding and Reproduction of the Rock Ptarmigan:

The only real difference between a male and female Rock Ptarmigan lies in the comb or wattle of its eye. There is some data that suggests the size of this comb is influential in determining the breeding success of the male. IE., the larger the comb the more likely the male is to be successful in breeding. In fact, this correlation goes on to suggest that males with larger combs are also more likely to be polygamous in a society that is generally monogamous. Polygamy tends to soar when population densities of the species rise.

Generally monogamous, the mating season is from late May to early June. Monogamous males will breed and stay with the females and provide vigilant watch over the hen and clutch until their clutch of eggs have hatched.

The hen will nest directly on the tundra, or on a bare rocky slope in either an Arctic or alpine habitat. The site for the nest will likely be beside a large rock that will provide some shelter for the hen and the nest. The nest is a simple scrape in the ground that is lined with grass, plant material, and some feathers. Here she will lay one egg every 24 to 28 hours until she has laid 5 to 10 eggs. Once all the eggs are laid, she will incubate them. Only leaving the nest to feed while the male watches over it. It takes somewhere between 21 to 26 days for the eggs to hatch and when the chick hatch they are precocial. As soon as they are dry, they will be able to feed themselves. The are capable of limited flight in 10 to 15 days and will be fully independent at 10 to 12 weeks of age.

Rock Ptarmigan are sexually mature at the age of 6 months.

Status of Rock Ptarmigan:

The Rock Ptarmigan was assessed by BirdLife International in 2015 to be a species of Least Concern. Justification for this assessment on the Red List was because it has a very large range and even though the population does show some sign of decline it is not great enough to have to take action. 

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0) White-tailed ptarmigan, Lagopus leucura LC

White-tailed Ptarmigan Range Map of Canada

White tailed Ptarmigan Range Map of Canada 

Original map of canada: By Nzeemin [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

Modified By: Canada-Hunts.ca

Finally, the White-tailed Ptarmigan the last of the three native species of ptarmigans that reside in Canada. It too is a year-round native resident that is only found on the west coast of Canada. It is non-migratory in its range which is in most of British Columbia. Portions of the Yukon and a western portion of the North West Territories.

Like mountain sheep, mountain goats and hoary marmots, it occupies the alpine tundra areas that are located above the tree line. It is North America’s only bird that resides in the alpine zone on a permanent basis. It habitat is one of boulders, rock slides, stunted windblown trees, accumulations permanent snow and ice, and upland herbaceous vegetation. Even during the winter months, it occupies the high valley and mountain sides where pockets of alder, willow, birch, and spruce stick out of the snow.

Winter

It resides along stream banks and depressions that are near or above the timberline. The key here is to find an area where the Artic Willow is plentiful and will be visible above the snow.

Breeding

In early May to late June, both males and females of the species will be found in alpine areas that are located above the treeline. What you look for here are places where the snow has melted and has plenty of willow along with a source of water. The elevation at which they breed is from 2,953 to 3,937 ft. (900 to 1,200 m.) above sea level.

Brood-Rearing

Here you will find that hens like moist meadows and areas that are full of boulders. These areas are generally higher in elevation than breeding areas and what you look for here are areas with lots of vegetation. You also want water nearby which could be melting snow, a spring, or the headwaters of a stream. During the summer they rarely summer below 11,483 (3,500 m.) above sea level.

Description of White-tailed Ptarmigan:

White-tailed ptarmigan

White Tailed Ptarmigan

White Tailed Ptarmigan - By John Hill - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=2877810

The White-tailed Ptarmigan may also be referred to as the snow or mountain quail and it is the smallest member of the galliforme family.

The wings of this bird are rounded and it has a squared off tail. Its beak is small and black. Its feet and legs are covered with feathers in order to help conserve heat and aid them in walking on the snow. It also has feathers about its nostrils in order help warm the cold air of its environment.

Although its winter plumage is all white, this ptarmigan does differ from the Willow and Rock Ptarmigan in that its tail feathers are white.

In the summer, it avoids predation and blends into the environment with its a brown-grey blotchy plumage on its back and chest while its underparts and wings are pure white.

Like the Willow and Rock Ptarmigan, male members of the species posses a reddish coloured eye comb. Also, males are marginally larger than females. This species has and overall length of 11.8 to 12.2 inches (30 to 31 cm.) and a body mass of 0.73 to 1.06 lbs. (330 to 480 lb.).

The life expectancy of a wild White-tailed Ptarmigan is estimated to be about 5 years of age.

Diet and Foraging Strategy of the White-tailed Ptarmigan:

The Ptarmigan is considered to be an herbivore and its vegetative diet of berries, catkins, flowers, leaves, twigs, and seeds will vary according to season, the depth of the snow, the subspecies, and the size of their bill.

Snow Depth.

You can appreciate that snow depths will vary throughout this bird’s range. As snow increases in depth some plant species may get buried under the snow and the ptarmigan are forced to forage on those plant species that are taller. 

Size of Bill

The size of Rock Ptarmigan bills is small so they will likely forage on smaller buds and catkins like that of the dwarf birch. However, Willow Ptarmigans have larger bills and they are capable of handling the larger buds of aspen. The size of the White-tailed Ptarmigans is between the two.

Subspecies

Because the breeding habitats of the Willow, Rock and White-tailed Ptarmigan are different. The area in which they forage for food for the period of May to September is different. Thus, they are not in competition for the same food resources.

Winter

In the winter they mainly forage on the buds and twigs of the willow. They also forage on catkins of the Alder. On a lesser scale they may also consume the buds and needles of spruce, pine, and fir.

Spring

Snow buttercup leaves seem to be the favoured spring time food.

Summer

Summer finds the white-tailed ptarmigan living on a diet of herbaceous leaves and flowers, willow buds, berries, seeds, and insects. Specific plants and types of foods include, willow catkins, mountain aven, and chickweed blooms. However, berries and lichens will make up the greatest portion of that diet,

Autumn

They start to transition back to their winter diet by consuming catkins, berries seeds, pine needles, seeds, and the twigs and buds of willow and alder.

Breeding and Reproduction of the White-tailed Ptarmigan:

The male returns from its wintering grounds in April and establishes a breeding territory located on the spruce-willow timber line. When the female arrives in May, he will court her by strutting his stuff and showing off his tail feathers.

The mating bond between male and female ptarmigan is mostly a monogamous one. We all know the role of the female is to lay the eggs and raise the brood. But, the role of the male Ptarmigan in the mating process is not only to breed but unlike other grouse he will act as a guard for the nest while the female feeds. Note that there is a slight variance here between Willow, Rock, and White-tailed ptarmigan in that The Willow Ptarmigan will also accompany and defend a brood after hatching while the other two species do not.

If a bond is established, the pair will mate and after mating the hen will build a simple nest directly on snow-free ground. She will scrape out a shallow depression beside a large object and line it with grass and feathers. Here she lays 4 to 7 cinnamon coloured eggs. Once all the eggs are laid, she will incubate them. Only leaving the nest to feed while the male watches over it. It takes about 22 to 24 days for the eggs to hatch and when the chicks hatch they are precocial. As soon as they are dry, they will be able to feed themselves. The are capable of limited flight in 7 to 10 days and will be fully independent at 10 to 12 weeks of age.

For their first couple of weeks the chicks live on a diet of mostly insects. The hen gradually leads them to lush patches of vegetation where they begin to feed on flowers and leaves. Here she will call to her chicks and encourage them to eat the plant life presented. Thus, beginning their transition to the diet of an adult.

These youngsters will stay with the hen all summer, autumn and winter season.

Both male and female members of this species will be ready to breed and mate next spring.

Status of White-tailed Ptarmigan:

The White-Tailed Ptarmigan was assessed by BirdLife International in 2012 to be a species of Least Concern. Justification for this assessment on the Red List was because it has a very large range and even though the population does show some sign of decline it is not great enough to have to take action.

References

Willow Ptarmigan

http://www.eol.org/pages/1049176/details

© Wildscreen - Source: ARKive

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors - Source: Animal Diversity Web

© NatureServe - Source: NatureServe

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources - Source: IUCN

© Joao Pedro de Magalhaes - Source: AnAge 

http://www.hww.ca/assets/pdfs/factsheets/ptarmigan-en.pdf

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Willow_ptarmigan

https://sora.unm.edu/

Rock Ptarmigan

http://www.eol.org/pages/900211/details

© Wildscreen - Source: ARKive

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors - Source: Animal Diversity Web

© NatureServe - Source: NatureServe

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources - Source: IUCN

http://www.hww.ca/assets/pdfs/factsheets/ptarmigan-en.pdf

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rock_ptarmigan

The Rock Ptarmigan In Southern Baffin Island By George M. Sutton And David F. Parmelee - https://sora.unm.edu/

Ptarmigan Foods in Alaska - https://sora.unm.edu/

White-tailed Ptarmigan

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors - Source: Animal Diversity Web

© NatureServe - Source: NatureServe

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources - Source: IUCN

© Joao Pedro de Magalhaes - Source: AnAge 

http://www.hww.ca/assets/pdfs/factsheets/ptarmigan-en.pdf

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White-tailed_ptarmigan

Background Images

Rock Ptarmigan - By Jan Frode Haugseth - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=10534500

Willow Ptarmigan - By David Mintz - From Flickr, the author agreed on the sharing., CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=18781610

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