Find the best places to hunt Rabbits and Hares in Canada and discover the Rabbit or Hares' Physical Description, Range, Habitat, Food Source, Breeding Habits, and Status. 

Provinces with Rabbit/Hare Hunting

Province / Territory

Species

Season

Nunavut

Arctic Hare

 Season Available

Northwest Territories

Arctic Hare

Snowshoe Hare

Season Available 

Yukon

Snowshoe Hare

 

British Columbia

Eastern Cottontail

Mountain Cottontail

Snowshoe Hare

White-tailed Jack Rabbit

Eastern Cottontail

European Rabbit

Snowshoe Hare 

Alberta

Mountain Cottontail

Snowshoe Hare

White-tailed Jack Rabbit

Season Available 

Saskatchewan

Eastern Cottontail

Mountain Cottontail

Snowshoe Hare

White-tailed Jack Rabbit

 

Manitoba

Arctic Hare

Eastern Cottontail

Snowshoe Hare

White-tailed Jack Rabbit

Season Available 

Ontario

Arctic Hare

Eastern Cottontail

Snowshoe Hare

Eastern Cottontail

European Rabbit

Snowshoe Hare 

Quebec

Arctic Hare

Eastern Cottontail

Snawshoe Hare

Arctic Hare

Eastern Cottontail 

Snowshoe Hare

New Brunswick

Snowshoe Hare

Snowshoe Hare 

Nova Scotia

Snowshoe Hare

Snowshoe Hare 
Prince Edward Island Snowshoe Hare Snowshoe Hare 
Newfoundland

Arctic Hare

Snowshoe Hare

Arctic Hare - Labrador

Snowshoe Hare

 

 

 Edditor's Note:

 Rabbits are often seen in parks , or even you lawn. People come across these nets and will open them up to see the baby rabbits or think that they have been abandoned. Please do not even touch the nest as the mother rabbit will most likely kill the entire litter if you do.

Eastern Cottontail - Sylvilagus Floridanus

Range - Distribution and Habitat of the Eastern Cottontail

The eastern cottontail may be one of the most common rabbits in North America but its’ not that common in Canada. The Canadian range exists only in the Southern portions of British Columbia, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Ontario and Quebec.

This rabbit requires a large quantity of low dense shrubbery or brush for cover mixed with open areas of grassland that can take the form of an old field, clearing, or unused pasture with lots of uncut green grass on which it can forage. The Eastern Cottontail is sometimes found in swamps and marshes but it is not a rabbit that is commonly found in the deep woods. It is likely to be more at home in an urban type setting where it can feed on garden plants and ornamental shrubs and use hedges for cover. In order to find this species look along the dense cover that surrounds the open fields or clearings. The cover may take the form of piles of brush, rows of trees or evergreens, or simply the edge of a forest.

To give you a better idea of it’s habitat. Where I used to live, this guy loved to forage on the uncut grass in my backyard. It would use the cedar hedge along the backyard as cover to hide in and I am sure if I looked hard enough there would have been a nest in there somewhere or under a nearby garden shed.

It occupies a home range less than 15 acres and with adequate habit can thrive on 2.5 to 7 acres. Areas of suitable habitat 40 acres or more in size allow for expansion of this rabbits’ population by giving it room for younger generations of rabbits to disperse into.

When feeding, this rabbit likes to keep some sort of hiding protection close at hand be it a hedge, garden shed, or trailer in the backyard that it can duck under.

Eastern Cottontail Range Map of Canada

Eastern Cottontail Range Map of Canada
 

 

Description of Eastern Cottontail:

 Eastern Cottontail

Eastern Cottontail Rabbit

 
Photo From - Peter Broster - Flickr 

Males and females of this species resemble each other in appearance but it is the female that is generally the larger specimen of the two. This rabbit has an overall length of 14 – 19 inches (35.5 - 48.5 cm.), a tail length of 1 – 3 inches (2.5 - 7.6 cm.), its ears are 2 – 3 inches (4.9 - 7.6 cm) in length and a weight of 1.7 – 4.4 lbs. (0.8 - 2 kg.).

In addition to its characteristic long ears, large back legs and feet, and a short fuzzy tail it also has the following attributes:  Its’ fore legs are shorter in length than its hind legs and the bottom of its paws are covered with fur. It normally holds its tail up against its’ back and for this reason you are seeing the underside of its tail which you perceive to be white.

The fur and colouring of this rabbit is as following:
  • The top part of its body is covered with a soft, dense fur that is brown to reddish-brown or grey in colour with a sprinkling of black.
  • On the back of its neck, there is normally a reddish-brown patch,
  • The belly is white
  • The underside of its tail is white.
  • Its legs and feet are normally a reddish-brown to buffy-brown colour.
  • Its ears are marginally darker than its back and may have black edging on them.
  • The Eastern often has a white spot on its forehead. 
  • A light tan coloured ring around the eyes.
  • The Eastern Cottontail is not like other rabbits or hares in that it maintains its colour throughout the winter and does not develop a white coat.
  • Younger members of the species are generally lighter and pale yellow-brown in colour than adults.

The Cottontail does not dig a burrow or den but instead it claws out dirt or grass to form a shallow depression in which it sits or rests. The eastern cottontail does not hibernate and is active all year long with most its activity at twilight and through the night. It spends its daytime hours resting in a shallow ground hollow located under vegetative cover or other shelter.

This rabbit usually travels short distances but it can be quite possessive of its territory.

Part of the defence mechanism of this mammal is its ability to remain motionless and blend in with its surroundings. It can sit still for 15 minutes at a sitting if it feels that it has not been detected. Once detected, it will hop along in a zigzag pattern, at a speed of up to 18 mph (29 km/h).

Diet and Foraging Strategy of Eastern Cottontail:

Rabbits and hares including eastern cottontails produce two types of feces one of which is consumed.

  • The first is a hard round feces or pellet that you are use to seeing when hunting for rabbits. 
  • The second is a soft smelly grape-like pellet that is covered in a thin layer of mucus and is produced in a pouch at the beginning of its large intestine and is called the Cecum. In herbivores, the Cecum stores food material for bacteria to break down cellulose fibres. These pellets are rich in minerals, vitamins, proteins, water, and bacteria and are re-consumed by the rabbit right after the rabbit passes it. This is done in order to prevent breaking the outer coats of the grains of these pellets. They are not chewed, they are simply swallowed. This process avoids the loss of nutrients and enables the fermentation of the food to continue.

The Eastern Cottontail is an herbivore and researchers have listed as many as 70 to 145 plant species in their diet. While it is almost and exclusive vegetarian; arthropods (spiders, insects, centipedes, mites, ticks) have periodically been found in pellet waste. 

Like most mammals, the diet of this rabbit is varied and largely dependent on forage availability. They feed by grazing and browsing food items that include bark, twigs, forbs leaves, fruit, buds, flowers, clover, grass seeds, sedge fruits, rush seeds, agricultural crops of oats, alfalfa, and soybeans, garden rose bushes, garden plants, and even my Japanese Maple. It has a liking for small material in that when it consumes a branch, twig, or stem it tends to only take those that are 0.25 in (0.64 cm) or less in size.

During the winter, this species will consume the woody parts of plants. With a characteristic clean, diagonal cut you will find it eating twigs, small branches, branch tips, buds, and bark. Preferred species include brambles, birch, oak, dogwood, maple trees but don’t rule out your garden ornament bushes.

Water is obtained mostly from the foods that they eat.

Rabbits and Hares are a cornerstone source of food for many species of the mammal world and the rabbit would be quickly wiped out as a species if their ability to breed rapidly and often was not part of their survival tools. On the other hand populations of rabbit / hares would explode if there was no natural predation.

The mating season for the Eastern cottontails can vary by its local but here in Canada it is from late February to early March and continues on until September with the female rabbit producing four or five litters annually and males mating with more than one female.

The Mating Dance

The rabbit and hare family go through a unique mating dance when going through the selection process. The buck (male) initiates the ritual by approaching the doe (female). The female may face the buck and fend off his advances with a boxing match of her front paws. Not put off by the does’ rejection, the buck continues to run or chase the doe. She may run, continue her boxing match or jump vertically in the air while he dashes under her in what looks like a game of hopscotch. At times, you may see both the male and female jumping vertically at the same time. I personally don’t know if this is a ritual or simply a process of wearing down the doe. In the end, the female will stand and allow the buck to mount her and complete the mating process.

The rabbit has a short gestation period of only 25-35 days (average 30 days). Prior to giving birth the doe will hollow out a slanting shallow nest or "scrape," in soft ground mostly located under the cover of a fallen tree, shrub, woodpile, brush pile, thicket, or hedgerow. The doe will line the nest with grasses or leaves and finally a layer of fur that comes from the underside of her belly. The average dimensions of a ground nest are 7.09 in (18 cm) in length, 4.9 in (12 cm) in width, and 4.71 in (12 cm) in depth. These nests are not exceptionally deep but deep enough that I have on occasion discovered a nest in my lawn with the lawnmower. Generally the nest is deep enough to not to harm the young but shallow enough to expose the nest. In most cases, the female will kill the young if this happens.

Litters can be from one to twelve young (kits), with an average of five kits. And over the breeding season she may produce 1 – 7 to seven litters a year with 3 – 4 being the average. The annual reproductive rate of does may be as high as 35 young. But the higher numbers are generally for more rabbits that live further south.

Does do not tend the nest continually, instead they return to the nest twice a day to nurse the kits. The young of the Eastern cottontail are born blind, and they have a very fine coat of hair. In 4 – 7 days the kits will open their eyes and around 12 – 16 days they will begin to make short excursions on their own from the nest. At 4 – 5 weeks of age they will be weaned from the doe, be independent of the doe, and she may be in the process of starting her next litter at this time. Dispersal of the kits is generally less than a mile from their birthplace and occurs at about seven weeks of age.

Rabbits reach sexual maturity at 2-3 months. It is estimated that 10 to 36 percent of females will breed the year they were born and the balance will wait their first spring after birth. 

It is thought that this rabbit could survive 7 years. The reality is that survival rate of wild rabbits are rather low, newborns perish quickly and many don’t make their 1st birthday with 6 months of age probably being the norm.

Status of Eastern Cottontail in Canada

The Eastern Cottontail is listed as a species of least concern (2008) on the Red list.

This rabbit has a long list of predators contend for its consumption. The key predators would be dogs, foxes, wolves and weasels. Birds of prey like Golden eagles, Red-tailed hawks, and great-horned owls will take either an adult or juvenile. Smaller birds like crows and shrikes will take kits given the opportunity.

Naturally, sport hunters harvest a lot of rabbits and mortally from vehicular interaction has got to be on the list.

Mountain Cottontail - Sylvalagus Nuttallii

Range - Distribution and Habitat of Mountain Cottontail:

The Mountain Cottontail rabbit is found predominantly in the United States, but this species in the last 117 years has been spreading to southern portions of British Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan.

There are two subspecies of this rabbit found in Canada.

  • Sylvilagus nuttallii grangeri is found in the most of the south-eastern portions of Alberta and south-western portions of Saskatchewan.
  • Sylvilagus nuttallii nuttallii has taken over the Okanagan and Similkameen valleys of southern British Columbia at the expense of the White-tailed Jackrabbit.

Stands of aromatic sagebrush (Artemis) tend to grow on hills, slopes or dry plains and this species of rabbit prefers a thick sagebrush habitat with dry brush or rocks nearby. It will occupy these regions along with dried up stream beds, river bottoms, coulees, and ravines found below the sagebrush covered slopes and ridges. In addition to sagebrush habitat it may dwell in conifer forests, shrub-filled gullies and forest edges.

The key ingredients appear to be lots of low lying brush to hide in mixed in with plenty of vegetation. This cover becomes more important in the winter as this leporid does not change colour in the winter.

The number of mountain cottontails that reside in a particular area is cyclic in nature and varies each year depending on climate, habitat conditions, predation, as well as other factors. The home range of this cottontail will overlap with other cottontails and normally be a few hectares in size. When considering the home ranges of this cottontail, females generally occupy a smaller territory than that of a male.

Mountain Cottontail Range Map of Canada

Mountain Cottontail Range Map of Canada

Original map of canada: By Nzeemin [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

Modified By: Canada-Hunts.ca

 

 

Description of Mountain Cottontail:

 Mountain Cotton Tail

Mountain Cottontail

 
Photo From - USFWS - Flickr 

When compared to the Eastern Cottontail it is similar in many ways especially when it comes to habits, diet and reproduction and populations tend to be cyclic.

The Mountain Cottontail, also referred to as Nuttall's Cottontail is solitary and not a socialable species. For Bucks, reproductive activities and courting does are about as social as it gets. The female will spend more sociable time as it takes more time caring for its litters. In general, this rabbit spends more than 50% of its time foraging for food, does not hibernate, and is active year round mostly early in the morning and the late afternoon.

This is a medium sized leporid where the back of its body and tail is a greyish-brown colour with shades of yellow on top and finishing up with a pale white on the underside of its tail and belly. They have a substantially large tail that is usually held upright thus showing the underside its’ tail most of the time. For a rabbit its ears are relatively short and rounded but they have a distinctive narrow black line around the outer edge of them. Their long legs are reddish-brown in colour with long dense hair covering the underside of them. Their whiskers are white or part white in colour and never black.

Female Mountain Cottontails are about 4% larger than males. They are 13.5 to 16.6 inches (33.8-41.5 cm) long, the tail is 1.2 to 2.2 inches (3.0-5.4 cm) long, and they have a weight of 1.4 to 1.9 pounds (632-871 grams).

Even though this leporid species is solitary in nature and adults will chase off other individuals who get to close. Congregations of this rabbit can often occur when there is a high amount of foraging material in the vicinity.

When danger presents itself, it may remain completely still and quiet, even if it is closely approached. They are quite able to remain like this for 15 minutes if required. Once it feels that it has been detected it will normally run 16 – 49 ft. (5-15m) into dense cover, then sit with its ears erect and counts on its camouflage to conceal it. It may also use a burrow that has been left by some other mammal as shelter.

Wild rabbits have a lot of predators and life for them is short. Most live less than a year on the average but is capable of a 12 year life span.

Diet and Foraging Strategy of Mountain Cottontail:

Rabbits and hares including eastern cottontails produce two types of feces one of which is consumed.

  • The first is a hard round feces or pellet that you are use to seeing when hunting for rabbits. 
  • The second is a soft smelly grape-like pellet that is covered in a thin layer of mucus and is produced in a pouch at the beginning of its large intestine and is called the Cecum. In herbivores, the Cecum stores food material for bacteria to break down cellulose fibres. These pellets are rich in minerals, vitamins, proteins, water, and bacteria and are re-consumed by the rabbit right after the rabbit passes it. This is done in order to prevent breaking the outer coats of the grains of these pellets. They are not chewed, they are simply swallowed. This process avoids the loss of nutrients and enables the fermentation of the food to continue.

Being a herbivore, the Mountain Cottontail only eats vegetation and feeds primarily on Sagebrush and Western Juniper,

They will also consume rabbitbrush and saltbush. During the spring and summer weeds and grasses like wheatgrass, needle-and-thread, Indian ricegrass, cheatgrass brome, bluegrass, and bottlebrush squirreltail make up part of its diet.

In the winter, lush green vegetation food sources become harder to get and their diet may switch over to woody plant material like buds, bark, twigs, and branches of shrubs or small trees.

For a rabbit it has a habit of going up into juniper trees to forage. It may also climb a tree to lick drops of water from the ends of branches or to eat foliage soaked in water. Because of these unusual quirks for a rabbit some people have thought this species to be semiarboreal (sometime dwells in trees).

Ranges of individual cottontails may straddle each other where feeding grounds can support a good population. Most foraging activity will be at dawn and dusk in clearings that are close to cover or within the shelter of brush.

Breeding and Reproduction of Mountain Cottontail:

The number of litters is mainly controlled by the duration of the growing season for the vegetation that grows in the local of the species' habitat. Here in Canada we have a shorter grown season so the number of litters will be lower. In British Columbia, this cottontail breeds between April and July and has a reproductive rate that can be from 4 to 5 litters per year and will contain 4 - 8 kits.

The Mating Dance

The rabbit and hare family go through a unique mating dance when going through the selection process. The buck (male) initiates the ritual by approaching the doe (female). The female may face the buck and fend off his advances with a boxing match of her front paws. Not put off by the does’ rejection, the buck continues to run or chase the doe. She may run, continue her boxing match or jump vertically in the air while he dashes under her in what looks like a game of hopscotch. At times, you may see both the male and female jumping vertically at the same time. I personally don’t know if this is a ritual or simply a process of wearing down the doe. In the end, the female will stand and allow the buck to mount her and complete the mating process.

After a gestation period of 28 - 30 days the young are born in a surface nest that is located in dense cover, rocky outcrop, under a barn or shed, or in an underground burrow. If a burrow is used it would not have been dug by the rabbit, it will be an abandoned burrow made some other mammal. Cuplike surface nests (also called forms) are scratched out of soft ground and will be 3.9 – 5.9 in. (10 - 15 cm) deep and 4.7 in (12 cm) wide, sometimes slanted into the ground. Be it a burrow or a ground nest, the mother rabbit will first line it with soft plant fibres or grass and then add a layer of soft fur from her belly. The kits are born in an undeveloped state where they are hairless and their eyes are closed. The doe will not occupy the nest herself but rather visits the nest once every 24 hours for about 5 minutes in order to feed the kittens. The doe produces a wholesome milk that has a very high content of fat and protein for the next 17 to 23 days. To nurse the young she will crouch over the nest and the kits will climb to the top of the nest to nurse and the milk is dispersed to the young at a high rate of speed. The kittens will stay together in the nest and the doe will then re-seal the entrance of the burrow or nest with sticks or grass when she has finished nursing.

This kind of maternal care or rather lack of physical contact between the mother and her kits is thought to be a reproductive strategy that lessens the odds of a predator finding the young and is called 'absentee parentism'.

The young do not open their eye for another 4-10 days after birth and will require daily care and feeding by the female. The young will leave the nest for short periods once they reach a weight of about 75 grams (5 oz) and they are totally weaned by 1 month. By 4 to 5 weeks of age they are quite capable of moving about independently, will reach sexual maturity at 3 months old and full maturity within a year.

It is possible for a female rabbit to breed the year that they were born but most females wait for their first spring after birth. Post-partum oestus is part of the females’ evolutional survival strategy allowing her genus to conceive immediately after giving birth. The second survival strategy is induced ovulation, in this case the act of mating / breeding causes the female to ovulate. When both of these two factors combined together allow leporids to maximize their reproductive rate in a given summer.

Male cottontails do not partake in the rearing of the kittens. However, they will display a behaviour called “policing” which is to intervene on behalf of a young rabbit should a doe attack it.

Status of Mountain Cottontail in Canada:

The Mountain Cottontail is listed as a species of least concern (2008) on the Red list.

Despite the fact that this species has no recent survey prairie populations are considered secure and stable. In British Columbia the population is considered limited and somewhat susceptible to decline.

The first recorded occurrence of this species in BC was in 1939 and since then it now inhabits all the cottontails available environment in the Similkameen and Okanagan valleys. This expansion provides proof that the population may actually be stable but it might also suggest that its' range will not expand further.

Predators of the Mountain Cottontail include gopher snakes, western rattlesnakes, foxes, birds of prey, coyotes, bobcats, and martens.

Snowshoe Hare - Lepus americanu

Range - Distribution and Habitat of Snowshoe Hare:

Found only in North America one of our most familiar forest animals is the Snowshoe hare.Evolution has given this animal large hind feet that allows it to hop and walk on top of snow and derives its’ name from those large feet. It may also be given the name varying hare, or snowshoe rabbit.

Using the 60th parallel as a landmark, south of the parallel this hare occupies every province in Canada and there are some very small patches of territory in Southern Alberta, Northern Manitoba and Southern Ontario that it does not exist. North of the 60th parallel, again it has range in almost every province or territory with Nunavut being the exception. Small notable exceptions also exist in the northern sectors of the Yukon, NWT, Quebec and Labrador.

This hare tends to be cautious and secretive. It will go unnoticed in the summer months and it will not be until the first snows of the season that its distinctive footprints will give away its existence.

Because of cover quality, young forests with an abundant dense softwood underbrush support greater snowshoe hare densities better than hardwood forests do. Major factors in determining in habitat quality are not only the availability of plant material to feed on but it must have cover. The under story formed by young trees or tall shrubs must dense enough to provide it protection from predation.

Many types of forest are utilized by Snowshoe hares.

  • In areas of eastern Canada and highland areas the Snowshoe uses forests that are mainly coniferous (spruce and fir).
  • When it comes to the large stretches of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba the mix of timberland is generally deciduous (aspen and balsam poplar) bush land.
  • In the northern sectors the hare occupies evergreen and mixed forests in any stages of development but forests that are in their early development harbour the best results.
  • British Columbia’s young developing Lodgepole pine stands makes for prime snowshoe hare terrain.

The height of the underbrush and the depth of snow will ultimately determine the suitableness of winter browse for the snowshoe. In areas of deep snowfall 6-8 ft (1.8 to 2.4 m) tall young trees with thin stems are needed for forage.

When the quantity of available forage becomes limited a Snowshoe may travel up to 5 miles (8 km) to obtain a more substantial food source.  The average home range of a snowshoe hare is approximately 14.8 – 24.7 acres (6 - 10 ha.) in size and the size of that territory is primarily dependant on the structure and availability of vegetation. Within its territory the hare has a complex system of trails that zigzags across its range. These trails will be well travelled by the hare and used by other species, like squirrels, porcupines, and skunks. The destinations and starting points will be either a foraging area or a place of rest. The main routes will be maintained in both the summer and winter time by the hare as it chews of stems and leaves from the trail. This trimming serves a secondary purpose in that it maintains an escape route from predators when required. 

Snowshoe Hare Range Map of Canada

Snowshoe Hare Range Map of Canda

Original map of canada: By Nzeemin [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

Modified By: Canada-Hunts.ca

 

Description of Snowshoe Hare:

 Snowshoe Hare

Snowshoe Hare

 
Photo from: Denali National Park and Reserve - Flickr 

The snowshoe is a good fit to its environment, Environmental adaptations for this species includes generously furred rear feet and all four of its long toes on all four feet are capable of extending the width of their surface area in order to allow it to travel on top of the snow. In order to help insulate itself from the snow the bottom of its feet are completely covered with fur.

This hare seasonally changes its camouflage fur colouring from grey-brown in the summer to white in midwinter. The coat is composed of three layers: an inner layer of short fine silky slate-grey fur; a medium length coat of taller, buff-tipped hairs; and finally its long coarser outer hairs. This hares’ change in colour is brought on by the seasonal changes in daylight that occurs in August or September and again in March or April. This change in the light spectrum will bring on a gradual shedding and replacement of the outer guard hairs twice yearly that can take up to ten weeks to occur.

It is commonplace for its hind feet to remain white throughout the years and on a local basis (southwestern British Columbia) where snow is infrequent, the snowshoe will retain its brownish throughout the year. 

The ears of the Lepus family contain lots of veins that are used to maintain its body temperature. Because of the snowshoes colder living conditions, the requirement for large ears is diminished. So evolution gave them smaller fur covered ears than most hares’

Following the trait of leporids the female snowshoe hare is generally slightly larger than a male. Adult snowshoe hares will have a weight range of 2.6 – 4.9 lbs (1.2 – 2.2 kg) with it attaining its greatest weight in the fall. The average weight is 2.9 lbs. (1.3kg) for a buck and 3.3 lbs. (1.5kg) for a doe. It will range 16 – 20 in. (40 – 50.8 cm) in length.

Hares do not hibernate, remain active all year round and are most active during the periods at dusk and dawn. Climatic conditions like rain, snow, or wind can reduce the hares’ daily routine and cause it to hide a lot. Daytime routines find it resting quietly under a bush, stump, or log. It sleeps intermittently with its eyes open. It is said that a rabbit/hare can detect movement even while sleeping. In addition to dozing it will groom itself but it is always alert to danger.  

When danger presents itself, it may remain completely still and quiet but it is more likely to slip away before it is detected. Once it feels that it has been detected it will normally run but hares that are younger than two weeks and cannot move as quickly as an adult will likely remain stationary. The hare differs from a rabbit in this defensive strategy. A rabbit will run and hide in cover but a hare will run to flee from a predator. They are quite capable of traveling 28 mph (45 km/hr) with leaps and bounds of 9.8 ft (3 m) at a time. With this difference in mind evolution gave the hare a larger heart than a rabbit. 

Diet and Foraging Strategy of Snowshoe Hare:

This hare can at times be observed foraging in groups. It is hard to give a detailed account of this hares’ diet because of its huge geographic range, varied local diet may differ from territory to territory and kind of forest that it occupies.

During the summer this hare will browse on different herbaceous plants, including plants like vetch, fern, strawberry, fireweed, lupine, bluebell, some grasses and leaves of low lying shrubs.

When the winter months come around green vegetation is tough to get so it will alter its diet by eating small twigs, the bark of coniferous and deciduous trees, and buds from flowers and plants. 

As layers of snow build up on the ground the hare will stand on its hind legs, support itself up with its front legs and reach up to 17.8 in. (45 cm) from the ground to clip twigs and branches from shrubs and low lying trees. As the snow builds, they can clip further up the tree or shrub. When population densities of this hare are high, it is not uncommon for this hare to kill some of these young trees and shrubs by pulling rings of bark from the plant.

Plant matter is not high in protein content and in order to supplement its diet and obtain protein. The hare will consume dead animals like mice, voles and other leporids. It may also visit the carcass of a larger animal or steal the bait meat from traps on trap lines. 

Rabbits and hares including the Snowshoe hare produces two types of feces one of which is consumed.

  • The first is a hard round feces or pellet that you are use to seeing when hunting for rabbits. 
  • The second is a soft smelly grape-like pellet that is covered in a thin layer of mucus and is produced in a pouch at the beginning of its large intestine and is called the Cecum. In herbivores, the Cecum stores food material for bacteria to break down cellulose fibres. These pellets are rich in minerals, vitamins, proteins, water, and bacteria and are re-consumed by the rabbit right after the rabbit passes it. This is done in order to prevent breaking the outer coats of the grains of these pellets. They are not chewed, they are simply swallowed. This process avoids the loss of nutrients and enables the fermentation of the food to continue.

Breeding and Reproduction of Snowshoe Hare:

The mating period for this hare begins in late December to January and ends in July or August. This time period will vary according to its latitude, location, growth of new vegetation and weather conditions. To give you an idea the peak in Ontario is in May but in Newfoundland the peak arrives in June.

The Mating Dance

The hare goes through a unique mating dance when going through the selection process. The buck (male) initiates the ritual by approaching the doe (female). The female may face the buck and fend off his advances with a boxing match of her front paws. Not put off by the does’ rejection, the buck continues to run or chase the doe. She may run, continue her boxing match or jump vertically in the air while he dashes under her in what looks like a game of hopscotch. At times, you may see both the male and female jumping vertically at the same time. I personally don’t know if this is a ritual or simply a process of wearing down the doe. In the end, the female will stand and allow the buck to mount her and complete the mating process.

Female hares generally breed for her first time the spring following her birth. The mating season starts with the fore-mentioned mating dance in mid-March. The doe will be receptive to males for about 24 hours during which time the bucks compete for does, and does may mate with several males. Paired hares will stay together while they feed and couple that with periods of mating activity. The act of mating stimulates ovulation in the female hare and she will become receptive again the day following the birth of each litter produced. Juvenile female hares generally don’t breed in the year that they are conceived. When it does occur it has only been recorded with females from the years’ first litter and only in years that follows a low point in the hares’ population cycle.

For this leporid its gestation time period is 35 to 40 days with an average of 37 days. The first litters of the year arrive in mid-April to May and the female is capable of producing up to four litters of 3 to 8 young annually. Again factors like latitude, elevation, climate, foraging material, and population cycles will dictate the size of the litter.

Examples are:

  • Deep snow will make more upper-branch forage available during the winter months. This has a positive impact in that there is more nutritional feed for potential breeding adults. The end result is that litters in these northern snow bound ranges have larger litters than those in the southern less snowed regions.
  • In Newfoundland does will produce litters of 2.9 – 3.5 kits, but Alberta females produce litters of 2.7 to 3.3 kits. 
  • When looking at the effects of population cycles it was recorded that the average number of Alberta hare litters per year was 3 just after a hares’ population peak but increased to 4 just after a population low.

The seasons’ first litter is normally the smallest litter with only three to four young. The second litter of the season is quite often the largest litter with four to seven kits.

Hare newborns are born differently than rabbits in that they are fully furred, open-eyed, and are capable of hopping almost right away when they are born. Rabbits are born hairless, blind and helpless.

Newborns may leave the natal nest within 24 hours for short times following their birth. During the day, offspring remain together close to each other and the nest. They will gather once a day normally in the evening in order to nurse with their mother. With the exception of the season’s last litter, the young will be weaned from its mother in 25 to 28 days. The last litter may continue to nurse for two months or longer.

Newborns enter the animal kingdom at 1.6 - 2.6 oz. (45 - 75 g) at birth. They will increase their weight by 1 lb. (450 g) within a month and by three to four weeks of age they are self-sufficient. By their fifth month they will reach the average adult weight of 3 lb. (1.4 kg).

Status of Snowshoe Hare in Canada

The Snowshoe Hare is listed as a species of least concern (2008) on the Red list.

The Snowshoe Hare is considered one of the most significant small game animals in Canada. For Aboriginals and the people of Newfoundland its meat fills their freezers. However non-Aboriginal people in the Prairie Provinces are resistant to consuming hare meat. This resistance seems to come from the idea that the hare has a mysterious disease that contributes to their cyclic decline. 

The Snowshoe Hare is key species in the boreal forest and supports the environment for predators by being one of their food sources. Predator populations tend to follow the 8-11-year cycle (referred to as a 10 year cycle) that the snowshoe hare has. This cycling pattern in Canadian forests has an effect on their predators that is unlike anything else and influential. We can only surmise how changes in habitat and climate will affect it.

Besides being a source of food for predators like red foxes, coyotes, mink, Great Horned Owl, and Northern Goshawk. It needs to be noted that this hare is the main food source of Lynx and it is the Lynx that is highly dependant on the survival of this species. Snowshoe hares less than two weeks of age fall victim to red squirrels and ground squirrels. The survival rate is somewhere between 1% and 40% for it to survive in a given year. This rate changes with its 10-year population cycle. This hare is capable of living to six years of age but those chances are slim as they will have a “lucky rabbits foot” (I couldn’t resist that one) if they survive their second summer. 

Because of the Snowshoe Hares’ foraging strategy of consuming vegetation. It is prone to ingesting parasites like ticks, lice, tapeworms, and lung worms. It also suffers from many viral and bacterial diseases.

Taenia pisiformis and Taenia serialis are two common tapeworms found in the snowshoe hare can be spread to your hunting dog if they are fed uncooked meat and / or organs from an contaminated hare. These tapeworms do not infect people.

The Snowshoe Hare Virus is not fatal to humans and has been discovered in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland. Human infections of this disease have occurred in Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. When this disease occurs in humans takes the form of an infection and inflammation of the brain (meningitis and encephalitis).

Tularemia, is a disease that can infect a snowshoe and is transferable to humans. On rare occurrences it can cause human mortality and is best avoided by thoroughly cooking all meat and by making sure that you don’t clean or process hares if you have cuts or abrasions on your hands. 

Arctic Hare - Lepus arcticus

Range - Distribution and Habitat of Arctic Hare:

Portions of Labrador and Newfoundland south of the 60th parallel have Arctic Hares and most of the territories of NWT, Nunavut, Quebec’s Nunavik, and Labrador north of the 60th parallel also have arctic hares.

They get their name Arctic Hare because they occupy the harsh tundra environment north of the tree line and may also be referred to as a Polar Rabbit. They will avoid marshlands and preference is given to dry areas of the tundra and mountainous regions where there is enough cover for plants to grow and the snow does not get too deep. Well suited to the cold and snowy environment found in the tundra, plateaus and treeless coasts of this region, the 

Polar hare may be found at altitudes between 0 (sea level) and 2953 ft. (900 m.)

There is not much sunlight in the winter and the temperature can drop to -40° F (-40° C). However, in the winter their white warm winter coat acts like camouflage against the snow and makes them less susceptible to predation.

Arctic Hare Range Map of Canada

Arctic Hare Range Map of Canada

Original map of canada: By Nzeemin [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

Modified By: Canada-Hunts.ca

 

Description of Arctic Hare:

 Arctic Hare

arctic hare

Photo From: Jodie Wilson - Flickr

The Arctic hare is one of the largest living members of the hare or rabbit family. This hare has a body length of 17 to 28 in (43 to 70 cm.) long and add to that its tail length of 1.8 – 3.9 in. (4.5–10 cm). It will typically weigh some where between 6 - 12 lb. (2.5–5.5 kg) although large adults can weigh up to 15 lb. (7 kg.).

Evolutionary development has given this mammal a compact body and appendages. This lowers it surface area to volume ratio in order to conserve body heat. These adaptations include shorter ears, limbs, a small nose, 20% of its body is made up of fat, and it sports a thick coat of fur.

Evolution also gave these mammals’ long claws for digging up plants in the snow or digging a snow burrow to keep warm or sleep. When it flees it gets up on its hind legs and runs at speeds up to 40 mph (60 kph) much like a kangaroo does.

The Arctic Hare has a great sense of smell as it can detect food that is buried under the ice and snow and they consume anything that is leafy and consume bark, roots and willow. To help this foraging process its incisors (front teeth) are longer and straighter than what most hares possess. It uses these incisors to pull plants out from between narrow openings in rocks.

The colour of the Arctic hares’ body varies according to the season and the climate of its’ local. In southern locals like Newfoundland and Labrador it is brown or grey in colour in the summer. However, in more northern arctic latitudes it will retain its white colouring all year. This colour adaptation allows it to maximize its camouflage against predators. Even when white the bottoms of its feet are black and the tips of ears have a black strip.

Like other hares it is nocturnal and does not hibernate. I am not sure if it is a social aspect of the species or a survival strategy but it tends to travel in groups of other hares of the same species. These feeding herds can consist of 10-60 hares and groups of up to 300 have been observed in northernmost sections of their range. Individuals within the herd stay close to other but not enough for huddling for warmth.

Diet and Foraging Strategy of Arctic Hare:

The Arctic Hare will consume food that is of both plant and animal origin. Foraging mainly on woody plant material and willow, 95% of its diet is saxifrage, crowberry, dryas, and dwarf willow. However, it will include lichen, moss, flowers, twigs, roots, leaves, mountain sorrel, and seaweed in its diet. 

Wintertime forage of woody plants, mosses, and lichens are obtained by digging in the snow. Forage in the summer time is easier to come by and buds, berries, leaves, roots, and bark will be added to the menu.

In order to obtain more protein in their diet they will periodically consume meat. 

Water is obtained through snow consumption.

Breeding and Reproduction of Arctic Hare:

The Arctic hare breeds in the months of April to May. Hares’ in the northern sections of their range tend to breed in the latter time period than those in the southern portions. At this time the herds of Arctic hares break up into breeding pairs. The pair will go through the mating dance ritual and set up a territory in which they will mate. Males may service more than one female during this period.

The Mating Dance

The hare goes through a unique mating dance when going through the selection process. The buck (male) initiates the ritual by approaching the doe (female). The female may face the buck and fend off his advances with a boxing match of her front paws. Not put off by the does’ rejection, the buck continues to run or chase the doe. She may run, continue her boxing match or jump vertically in the air while he dashes under her in what looks like a game of hopscotch. At times, you may see both the male and female jumping vertically at the same time. I personally don’t know if this is a ritual or simply a process of wearing down the doe. In the end, the female will stand and allow the buck to mount her and complete the mating process.

The female constructs a maternal form in the ground that is usually located behind rocks or behind a bush. She then lines the form with grass followed up by fur from her belly.

The doe will conceive one litter of 2-8 (average is 5) young (called leverets) in late May through July of each year. The leverets are born with fur, eyes open, are able to hop within minutes of birth and will weigh about 3.7 oz. (105 g.) at birth and the doe remains near the young for the first few days. For the balance of the summer she returns about every 18 – 19 hours to nurse them. Once the young are 2-3 weeks old they begin to leave the nest and will create their own forms, but stay within the mother’s territory for nursing needs until they are capable of surviving by themselves

The leverets are weaned by the time they are 8-9 weeks old (August). They grow fast and by the time September rolls around it is almost impossible to tell them apart from their parents. Sexual maturity is reached in six months but they will wait till next year to breed.

Like their parents, leverets remain still and hide in rocks or vegetation when predators like wolves, lynx and Arctic fox are detected.

There is not much information regarding the life expectancy of the Arctic hare but some unreliable evidence suggests that a wild Arctic Hare may live three to five years.

Status of Arctic Hare in Canada

The Arctic Hare is listed as a species of least concern (2008) on the Red list.

This species is near the bottom of the food chain and it is mainly the younger hares that fall prey to mammals like the Artic Wolf, Arctic Fox, Red Fox, Canada Lynx, and ermines. Let’s not forget that birds of prey like the Snowy Owl, Rough-legged hawk and Peregrine falcon and feed it to their young.

It has been noted on Ellesmere Island in Nunavut that Gyrfalcons will carry a hare back to their nest. They will cut the hare in half and after consuming it. The falcon will use the hares’ bones and feet to build their nests with.

For the Aboriginal Peoples this hare is hunted for not only as a food source but as a source of fur with which they can make clothing.

When you consider the role that this species has in ecology of mammals and man alike it is not surprising to find out that predation is the main cause of mortality for the Arctic Hare.

A hare does not fall victim to diseases very often and there are four groups of parasites have been known to use Arctic hares as a host: single celled cells, round worms, lice, and fleas. 

White-tailed Jack Rabbit - Lepus townsendii

Range - Distribution and Habitat of White-tailed Jackrabbit:

The White-tailed Jack Rabbit has a fairly big range through out North America but here in Canada its is only found in the southern portions of British Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan, southwestern Manitoba and touches on the southwestern corner of Ontario. These Canadian provinces seem to constitute the northern most boundary of its range.

Note:

The White-tailed Jack Rabbit once was the sole rabbit occupant of the Okanagan and Similkameen valleys of southern British Columbia but encroachment from the Mountain Cottontail seems to be taking over those ranges from the White-tailed Jack.

This rabbit can be found from elevations that start at 98.5 ft (30 m) right on up to elevations of 14170 ft. (4319 m).

As far as habitat types: it can be found in open grasslands where the landscape is dominated by grasses and interspersed with sedges, and rushes. It can also be found at higher altitudes where the primary vegetation is made up of shrubs but they must also include grasses and herbs.  

An ideal and preferred 

habitat would consist of grass with shrubs scattered between sagebrush. In mountainous forest ranges this hare has a liking for patches of aspen and fir.

This hare has a home range of about 4.9 – 10.8 m² (12.5 - 28.25 km²) in size and like the Snowshoe Hare the White-tailed Jackrabbit goes through cyclic fluctuations in populations.

White-Tailed Jackrabbit Range Map of Canada

Original map of canada: By Nzeemin [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

Modified By: Canada-Hunts.ca

 

Description of White-tailed Jackrabbit:

 White-tailed Jackrabbit

Whitetailed Jack Rabbit

 Photo From: USFWS - Flickr

Early settlers noted the exceptionally long ears of this species and noted how much it looked like a donkey. For that reason they referenced the White-tailed Jackrabbit as the "jackass rabbit". I wonder if in the writings of Mark Twain his “Jackass Rabbit” is the same one. The Jackass rabbit’s name latter became simply Jackrabbit but it may also be called the Prairie Hare or White Jack.

The naming of this species “White-tailed jackrabbit” causes confusion in that it isn't really a rabbit but it is a hare. The defining factor in determining whether it is a hare or a rabbit lies in the how their young are born. Hare newborns are born differently than rabbits in that they are fully furred, open-eyed, and are capable of hopping almost right away when they are born. Rabbits are born hairless, blind and helpless.

Typically the female is larger than the male. Males will range in length 22.2 – 24.3 inches (56.5-61.8 cm) with an average of 23.2 inches (58.9 cm). Weights for females range 22.6 – 25.7 ins. (57.5-65.5 cm) in length and average 24 inches (61.2 cm). These lengths include its short 3 – 4 inch (7.6 – 10 cm.) tail. Corresponding weights range 5.7 – 9.5 lbs. (2,600-4,300 g.) for males with an average weight of 7.5 lbs. (3.400 g.) while females’ range 5.5 - 9.5 lbs. (2,500-4,300 g) and average 7.9 lbs. (3.600 gm.).

General appearance of this hare is characterized by its large ears, large feet, and an overall large body.

Its ears that are 3.4 to 4.4 inches (10 – 11.3 cm.) in length are an important evolutional development as they are used not only to improve it ability to hear but to also regulate its body temperature. The ears are wide and contain lots of blood vessels. This large size of the ears provides a large surface area. In hot weather the hare retreats out of the sun and widens the blood vessels that are located in the outer part of its ears. Blood flow through the ears is increased and it acts like the radiator in your car to cool the hare. This process is called vasodilation and has the added benefit of conserving body fluids (like a need for water) by not having to panting like a dog or sweat like we do.

The hind foot of this hare is 5.7 to 6.5 inches (14.5 – 16.5 cm) in length. It has the ability of running 35 to 50 mph (56 to 80 kph) and at that speed it will travel 6 to 10 ft (2–3 m) in a single bound. In order to view its purser better it has learned to jump 3 to 4 feet (.91 – 1.2 m) high as it bounds. In the unfortunate case when it is caught by a predator, it will use these hind legs to kick, claw, and try to fight off its attacker.

The White-tailed Jackrabbit receives its name from the fact that it sports a yearlong white tail that has a dark stripe on top of its tail. Again on a year round basis, the outside of its ears are whitish-grey, has a dark brown colour on the inside of the ears, and black on the very tip.

This hare moults twice a year. Its summer coat has an upper body that can be a greyish brown colour to a brown with a dark brown colour. The flanks or sides of its body will lighten to a greyish brown colour and finally its belly will be grey to white. The tops of its feet and legs can be anywhere from a white to greyish brown colour.

In regions with regular snowfalls, the winter coat across its back, sides, under belly and feet maybe almost all white. Depending on local and climate there is the bit of brown hue in that white or as in the case of southern hares of this species it may not change colour at all.

Like all hares it does not hibernate in the winter months and is active all year long. It is considered to be crepuscular in that most of its foraging activity is concentrated about twilight hours (early morning and early evening). It will continue to feed through the night particularly if there is a full moon. During the day it will hide and rest in a form that will be located in tall grass, under a shrub, or in a rock crevasse.

For the White-tailed Jackrabbit the form is simply a cup shaped depression that is dug in soft soil. The dimensions of the form will be about 7.9 in. (20 cm) deep, 18 to 24 inches (46 – 61 cm) long and 7.9 to 11.8 in (20 to 30 cm) wide.

Jackrabbits are known to be loners with most of their contact with others of the same species occurring during the breeding season. There are occasions when they do group together while feeding but my opinion is that it is the availability of food that is causes this to happen. 

Diet and Foraging Strategy of White-tailed Jackrabbit:

The White-tailed Jackrabbit is a herbivore that during the spring and summer months will eat green grasses, flowering plants (forbs) and agricultural crops. Common examples are wheat, alfalfa, dandelion, and blue gramma grass.

When winter arrives it will change its diet and eat the buds, twigs, and bark of small trees and shrubs from their lower extremities.

Rabbits and hares including the Snowshoe hare produces two types of feces one of which is consumed.

  • The first is a hard round feces or pellet that you are use to seeing when hunting for rabbits. 
  • The second is a soft smelly grape-like pellet that is covered in a thin layer of mucus and is produced in a pouch at the beginning of its large intestine and is called the Cecum. In herbivores, the Cecum stores food material for bacteria to break down cellulose fibres. These pellets are rich in minerals, vitamins, proteins, water, and bacteria and are re-consumed by the rabbit right after the rabbit passes it. This is done in order to prevent breaking the outer coats of the grains of these pellets. They are not chewed, they are simply swallowed. This process avoids the loss of nutrients and enables the fermentation of the food to continue.

Breeding and Reproduction of White-tailed Jackrabbit:

The White-tailed Jackrabbit here in its northern range breeds in the months of May-early July. The solidarity nature of the this hare is given u at this time as males compete for the affection of females and bucks and does pair off into breeding pairs. The like other members of the leporid family paired hares will go through the mating dance ritual and set up a territory in which they will mate. Males may service more than one female during this period and the act of mating causes the doe to ovulate.

The Mating Dance

The hare goes through a unique mating dance when going through the selection process. The buck (male) initiates the ritual by approaching the doe (female). The female may face the buck and fend off his advances with a boxing match of her front paws. Not put off by the does’ rejection, the buck continues to run or chase the doe. She may run, continue her boxing match or jump vertically in the air while he dashes under her in what looks like a game of hopscotch. At times, you may see both the male and female jumping vertically at the same time. I personally don’t know if this is a ritual or simply a process of wearing down the doe. In the end, the female will stand and allow the buck to mount her and complete the mating process.

The male does not participate in the rearing of the young. From this point on, the doe must to raise the leverets by herself. She will undergo a gestation period that is 36–43 days long and during this period she will construct a maternal form in which the young will be born. This nest is simply a dug out form under dense cover which she will line with dried vegetation follow by her own fur from her underbelly.

This species is capable of 1-4 litters per year but here in Canada it is likely that the doe will only produce one and maybe two litters. Each litter produced can contain 1-11 leverets but a typical nest will consist of 4-5 young. 

Hares are precocial meaning that the young are born in an advanced state of development and are capable of feeding themselves almost immediately. Newborns weigh about 3.5 oz. (100 g.), their eyes are open, and they are fully furred. Leverets are able to hop about within minutes after birth and they will begin to move around and forage on their own at about two weeks of age.

The doe nurses her young for one month and at the end of that time the young are weaned. It is at only 2 months of age that the youngsters are independent.

These juvenile Jackrabbits are sexually mature at about seven months of age but will wait till next years breeding season in order to participate. 

Status of White-tailed Jackrabbit in Canada

The White-tailed Jackrabbit Hare is listed as a species of least concern (2008) on the Red list.

We have to remind ourselves that this species is near the bottom of the food chain and its role in ecology is to be a source of food for larger mammals. Younger hares and the odd adult Jackrabbit make a good meal for predatory mammals like the Red Fox, Grey fox, coyote, bobcat, American badger, foxes, and snakes. Although for the cougar or grey wolf it is just a snack.

Let’s not forget that birds of prey eagles, hawks, and owls like juvenile hares and feed them to their young. Ferruginous hawks, Great Horned Owls and Golden eagles are probably the only birds of pray that are capable of taking away an adult Jackrabbit.

The White-tailed Jackrabbit shares some grassland with the pronghorn and just like the Pronghorn evolution has developed its eyesight and hearing. It also has been given the gifts of camouflage and speed to elude potential predators.  

Their primary defence is to elude detection by crouching with ears laid back in vegetative cover and let their natural colour do its work of concealing it. At times they opt to slowly slink away, but if they believe that they have been spotted they will use their speed to bound away.

Humans are always listed as a source of causing population decline but in this case sport hunting only takes a fraction of what natural predation does.

References

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arctic_hare
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_cottontail
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mountain_cottontail
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pika
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabbit
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Snowshoe_hare
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_pika
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White-tailed_jackrabbit
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_mammals_of_Canada
  • http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/rabbit/
  • http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/pika/
  • http://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/mammals/e/eastern-cottontail-rabbit/
  • http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/41299/0
  • http://aep.alberta.ca/fish-wildlife/wild-species/mammals/rabbits-rodents/mountain-cottontail.aspx
  • http://aep.alberta.ca/fish-wildlife/wild-species/mammals/rabbits-rodents/pika.aspx
  • http://fieldguide.mt.gov/speciesDetail.aspx?elcode=AMAEB01060
  • https://www.fws.gov/refuge/National_Bison_Range/Wildlife_and_Habitat/mountain_cottontail.html
  • http://www.registrelep-sararegistry.gc.ca/species/speciesDetails_e.cfm?sid=163
  • http://wildpro.twycrosszoo.org/S/0MLagomorph/Leporidae/Sylvilagus/Sylvilagus_nuttallii.htm
  • http://naturalhistory.si.edu/mna/image_info.cfm?species_id=133
  • http://naturalhistory.si.edu/mna/image_info.cfm?species_id=135
  • http://www.hww.ca/en/wildlife/mammals/snowshoe-hare.html?referrer=https://www.google.ca/
  • http://cwf-fcf.org/en/resources/encyclopedias/fauna/mammals/snowshoe-hare.html
  • http://fr.cwhc-rcsf.ca/wildlife_health_topics/arbovirus/arbossh.php
  • http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1035&context=zoonoticspub
  • http://www.virtualmuseum.ca/edu/ViewLoitLo.do;jsessionid=C1ECBB12E0665C1594067243C1635273?method=preview&lang=EN&id=13918
  • http://creationwiki.org/Arctic_hare
  • http://aep.alberta.ca/fish-wildlife/wild-species/mammals/rabbits-rodents/White-tailed-jack-rabbit.aspx
  • http://fwp.mt.gov/mtoutdoors/HTML/articles/portraits/jackrabbit.htm#.WOAwFPnyuUk
  • http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/mammals/whitetailedjackrabbit.html
  • https://www.nps.gov/yell/learn/nature/jackrabbit.htm
  • http://www.registrelep-sararegistry.gc.ca/species/speciesDetails_e.cfm?sid=1169

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